While salt is frequently used for cooking, it can also be found as an ingredient in foods or cleansing solutions. In medical cases, your doctor or nurse will typically introduce sodium chloride as an injection. Read on to see why and how salt plays an important role in your body.
About 75 to 90 percent of our sodium intake comes from salt, or sodium chloride. Salt provides an essential mineral (sodium) that our bodies use for functions such as maintaining blood pressure and absorbing nutrients. You can also use salt for seasoning foods, cleaning your household items, and addressing certain medical issues.
You should consult your doctor before adding more sodium chloride to your diet. Most people exceed the recommended amount, but people who drink excessive amounts of water, have persistent diarrhea, or participate in long endurance events may have sodium deficiency. In these cases, good oral hydration may help. In more severe cases, a healthcare professional may need to provide intravenous (IV) saline solution to restore hydration and electrolytes.
Sodium chloride exists naturally in cubic, crystalline form and, in its pure state, is colorless and odorless, but depending on its gradation and commercialization, salt can be white, gray, reddish, or even brownish as well. The color can be attributed to the impurities present, either occluded or on the surface of the crystals. Salt is soluble in polar solvents and insoluble in nonpolar types of solvents.
Sodium Chloride produced commercially can exist as crystals in various sizes ranging from ﬁne granules of powder to compressed pellets or blocks. Salt production includes three production types: Solution mining: the display of dry, crystalline sodium chloride by solution extraction of salt from under-ground deposits using water, followed by evaporation of the brine; the dry mining method of extracting the mineral halite from beneath the ground, and by solar salt harvesting.
Well water and many public drinking water supplies in different areas contain elevated calcium, magnesium, and other minerals. Calcium and magnesium salts, as well as chlorides and carbonates, reduce the sudsing action of soaps and detergents.
The total salt distributed by producers in the United States was salt in brine produced and used by chemical manufacturers to produce chlorine and caustic soda. The pulp and paper industry has used chlorine and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) in multistage bleaching.
Sodium Chloride has thousands of industries that utilize salt as a raw material. The major industries include textile and dyeing, where salt is used to ﬁx dyes and to standardize dye batches; metal processing, such as aluminum reﬁning, where salt is used to remove impurities; rubber manufacturing to separate the rubber from latex; detergent production, where salt is used as a ﬁller; pigment manufacture, as a grinding agent; ceramics manufacture, where salt acts to vitrify heated clays; soap making, where salt separates glycerol from water; oil and gas drilling, where salt is used to produce a drilling mud that prevents widening of boreholes, inhibits fermentation, and increases mud density; pharmaceuticals, where salt is used for tablet and caplet polishing, the production of intravenous saline solutions and for manufacturing hemodialysis solutions used for kidney machines; and in animal hide processing and leather tanning, where salt is used to cure, preserve, and tan hides.
In most people, the kidneys have trouble keeping up with excess sodium in the blood. As sodium accumulates, the body holds onto water to dilute the sodium. This increases both the amount of fluid surrounding cells and the volume of blood in the bloodstream. Increased blood volume means more work for the heart and more pressure on blood vessels. Over time, the extra work and pressure can stiffen blood vessels, leading to high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke. It can also lead to heart failure. There is some evidence that too much salt can damage the heart, aorta, and kidneys without increasing blood pressure, and that it may be bad for bones, too. Learn more about the health risks and disease related to salt and sodium:
Sea salt is produced by evaporating ocean or sea water. It is also composed mostly of sodium chloride, but sometimes contains small amounts of minerals like potassium, zinc, and iron depending on where it was harvested. Because it is not highly refined and ground like table salt, it may appear coarser and darker with an uneven color, indicating the remaining impurities and nutrients. Unfortunately, some of these impurities can contain metals found in the ocean, like lead. The coarseness and granule size will vary by brand.
Salt, also known as sodium chloride, has many end uses. Virtually every person in the world has some direct or indirect contact with salt daily. People routinely add salt to their food as a flavor enhancer or apply rock salt to walkways to remove ice in the winter. Salt is used as feedstock for chlorine and caustic soda manufacture; these two inorganic chemicals are used to make many consumer-related end-use products, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic made from chlorine and paper-pulping chemicals manufactured from caustic soda.
Sodium chloride /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/, commonly known as salt (although sea salt also contains other chemical salts), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In its edible form, salt (also known as table salt) is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. Another major application of sodium chloride is deicing of roadways in sub-freezing weather.
This electrolysis is conducted in either a mercury cell, a diaphragm cell, or a membrane cell. Each of those uses a different method to separate the chlorine from the sodium hydroxide. Other technologies are under development due to the high energy consumption of the electrolysis, whereby small improvements in the efficiency can have large economic paybacks. Some applications of chlorine include PVC thermoplastics production, disinfectants, and solvents.
Sodium chloride is used in the Solvay process to produce sodium carbonate and calcium chloride. Sodium carbonate, in turn, is used to produce glass, sodium bicarbonate, and dyes, as well as a myriad of other chemicals. In the Mannheim process, sodium chloride is used for the production of sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid.
Sodium chloride has an international standard that is created by ASTM International. The standard is named ASTM E534-13 and is the standard test methods for chemical analysis of sodium chloride. These methods listed provide procedures for analyzing sodium chloride to determine whether it is suitable for its intended use and application.
Sodium chloride is heavily used, so even relatively minor applications can consume massive quantities. In oil and gas exploration, salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and increase the density of the drilling fluid to overcome high downwell gas pressures. Whenever a drill hits a salt formation, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution in order to minimize the dissolution within the salt stratum. Salt is also used to increase the curing of concrete in cemented casings.
It is also used in processing aluminium, beryllium, copper, steel, and vanadium. In the pulp and paper industry, salt is used to bleach wood pulp. It also is used to make sodium chlorate, which is added along with sulfuric acid and water to manufacture chlorine dioxide, an excellent oxygen-based bleaching chemical. The chlorine dioxide process, which originated in Germany after World War I, is becoming more popular because of environmental pressures to reduce or eliminate chlorinated bleaching compounds. In tanning and leather treatment, salt is added to animal hides to inhibit microbial activity on the underside of the hides and to attract moisture back into the hides.
Sodium chloride is sometimes used as a cheap and safe desiccant because of its hygroscopic properties, making salting an effective method of food preservation historically; the salt draws water out of bacteria through osmotic pressure, keeping it from reproducing, a major source of food spoilage. Even though more effective desiccants are available, few are safe for humans to ingest.
Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions that interfere with action of soap and contribute to the buildup of a scale or film of alkaline mineral deposits in household and industrial equipment and pipes. Commercial and residential water-softening units use ion-exchange resins to remove ions that cause the hardness. These resins are generated and regenerated using sodium chloride.
Road salt ends up in fresh-water bodies and could harm aquatic plants and animals by disrupting their osmoregulation ability. The omnipresence of salt in coastal areas poses a problem in any coating application, because trapped salts cause great problems in adhesion. Naval authorities and ship builders monitor the salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. Maximal salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. Salinization (increasing salinity, aka freshwater salinization syndrome) and subsequent increased metal leaching is an ongoing problem throughout North America and European fresh waterways. 59ce067264